Delhi , May 2011
If one has to look for a classic case of excellent branding without
spending a penny on advertising, Spanish fashion brand Zara will
surely fit the bill.
Inditex (Zara's parent company) has formed a 51:49 joint venture
with the Tata Group's retail business, Trent and opened the first
Zara store in India in May 2010. The brand made a big bang entry
in the Indian fashion battleground. More than 500 women visited
the first store (in Select Citywalk mall in New Delhi) within
the first few hours of its launch. Going by reports, the store
clocked sales of Rs 90 lakh on the first day and around Rs 1.25
crore on the opening weekend. At present, estimations suggest
that the Zara stores in Selec tCityWalk (New Delhi) and in Palladium
Mall (Mumbai) have monthly sales of approximately Rs 4-6 crore.
However, when we quizzed Inditex about its sales, the company
didn't disclose the information citing it confidential. According
to Technopak Advisors, Zara was also instrumental in generating
30-40 per cent more footfalls in malls where it opened. So much
so that, few stores near Zara in the Select Citywalk mall have
noted 20 per cent higher footfalls, since Zara's opening.
Zara's core target group globally is the mid-market. In India,
the brand is looking at a share of the upper middle class' wallet.
If we go into the background, Zara, the Spanish fashion brand
has been a huge success because of its fast affordable fashion
model which translates into latest fashion clothing at a reasonable
price for its core target consumers, worldwide. This model is
hugely led by the two Ps - Product and Place and strongly complemented
by competitive pricing. However, promotion is one P where Zara
doesn't puts a lot of energy.
Zara's model is simple: It takes two weeks for a design (mostly
runway knock-offs) to move from designbook to the store. It also
has 11,000 styles in one year and changes the inventory in store
even twice a week. In sharp contrast, it takes four to eight months
for any other fashion brand to produce a fresh design and place
them in stores and usually there are 4,000 new styles every year.
This model has helped Zara offer its customers widest range of
choices across the globe. The brand is adopting a similar approach
in India too. Zara's offering worldwide is focused on luring consumers
through combination of latest trends, good design, high quality
and affordable prices in a constantly renewed collection. Monica
Laliwala, Managing Director, Xsis Promotions says, "Zara
works on the impulsiveness of youth and that is why the fast fashion
model and this strategy has worked really well for the brand across
So if you walk into a Zara store on a monthly basis, chances
are low that you will find the same designs you saw last time.
The company spokesperson comments, "Zara is applying to Indian
market the same way of understanding fashion business that has
supported its expansion to 78 countries until now. With our first
stores opened in India, we are learning about Indian customers
tastes." The brand takes into consideration the opinions,
preferences and concerns of the Indian customers through sales
figures, orders of the stores and daily dialogue with store managers.
"Our store staff is specially trained and motivated to be
able to catch' this information, being always open to listen to
the customer and to transmit his/her comments to the designers.
Of course the information we receive from our Indian customers
is being taken in mind by our designers," adds the spokesperson.
Zara follows a central distribution model where all its merchandise
is shipped to different parts of the world from its distribution
centre in Spain. The same model is applied in India too. This
ensures that the quality of product remains the same as in any
other global market, however, it puts some pressure on the costs
because of high import duties. That's the reason why Zara's pricing
turns out to be premium in India as against its 'affordable fashion'
pricing globally. In contrast, most of the international brands
operating in India now are relying on local sourcing. So far,
the premium pricing has not hurt the brand in the country but
some experts are of the view that Zara may need to keep an eye
on that front to build successful and sustainable business here.
However, Devangshu Dutta, CEO, Third Eyesight, a research
firm, feels that in terms of pricing, it is meaningless to directly
compare the mid-market segment in India with what is mid-market
in Europe, when the income and spending standards are so different.
A brand has two choices: either to be consistent in its pricing,
or to change its merchandise and shift pricing downwards to fit
into the very different Indian mid-market. "If pricing is
kept consistent with European markets, then direct translation
of European pricing into Indian rupees immediately places all
mid-market brands into the premium segment. On top of that, high
import duties ensure that there is less margin to manoeuvre on
the retail price," he adds.
According to Peshwa Acharya, marketing & retail expert (currently
Marketing Head Reliance Communication), location has played a
key role in the success of Zara in the country. "It has clearly
chosen the locations where its core TG, that is the upper middle
class, is surely present. That's the difference between Zara and
Mango (both are Spanish brands). Zara has chosen only premium
locations for its store while Mango has opted for a mix of both,"
Another noticeable thing about Zara that has left many marketing
suits surprised is that the brand doesn't advertise at all. When
quizzed, the company responded, "We do not advertise, as
we believe that our product and our stores must speak themselves
and satisfy customers' expectations. We don't envisage any kind
of promotion and Zara doesn't work with celebrities in any country."
So much so that the brand hasn't got even a specific marketing
budget for Indian market.
The brand is still testing the waters in the country with a handful
of stores and the response so far has been overwhelming. So far,
it is present in Delhi and Mumbai and plans to open stores in
Mumbai, Pune and Bengaluru in 2011.
The success path - Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
- Positioned as a fast fashion brand globally, Zara, targets
the mid-market. In India, however, it is looking to tap the
upper middle class' wallet, positionintg itself as a premium
- Zara's core TG in the country consists of people familiar
with the brand much before it entered the country. They are
well travelled and aware about global fashion trends
- High import duties ensure that the pricing of Zara remains
- Does not invest in advertising, and largely relies on PR
- It has clearly chosen the locations - high-end malls - where
its core target group, that is, the upper middle class is surely
Result- What the brand achieved
- More than 500 women visited the first store (in Select Citywalk
mall in New Delhi) within the first few hours of its launch
- The brand has been instrumental in generating 30-40 per cent
more footfalls in malls where it opened
- Estimations suggest that Zara stores in Select CityWalk (New
Delhi) and in Palladium Mall (Mumbai) have monthly sales of
Rs 4-6 crore
(This article appeared in the May 2011 edition of Pitch